Rexx for everyone
Автор: David Mertz, Developer, Gnosis Software, Inc.
Дата: 04 February 2004
Scripting with Free Software Rexx implementations
It's easy to get lost in the world of "little languages" -- quite a few have been written to scratch some itch of a company, individual, or project. Rexx is one of these languages, with a long history of use on IBM operating systems, and good current implementations for Linux and other Free Software operating systems. Rexx occupies a useful ecological niche between the relative crudeness of shell scripting and the cumbersome formality of full systems languages. Many Linux programmers and systems administrators would benefit from adding a Rexx implementation to their collection of go-to tools.
The Rexx programming language was first created in 1979, as a very high level scripting language that had a particularly strong facility for text processing tasks. Since Rexx's inception, IBM has included versions of Rexx with most of its operating systems -- all the way from its mainframes, to its mid-level systems, to end user OS's like OS/2 and PC-DOS. Other OS makers, such as Amiga, have also integrated Rexx as an always-available system scripting language. A number of ISVs, moreover, have created Rexx environments for many platforms. Somewhat late in the game, ANSI officially adopted a standard for Rexx in 1996.
Nowadays (especially on Linux or BSD-derived OS's), most of those older implementations of Rexx are primarily interesting as historical footnotes. However, two currently maintained implementations of Rexx remain available across a wide range of platforms, including Linux, MacOSX and Windows: Regina and NetRexx. Regina is a native executable, available as Free Software source code, or pre-compiled to a large number of platforms -- install it pretty much as you would any other programming language interpreter. NetRexx is an interesting hybrid. The language is a derivative of plain Rexx. Much like Jython or Jacl, NetRexx compiles Rexx-like source code into Java bytecodes, and (optionally) runs the resulting
.class file within a JVM.
NetRexx is an IBM project for compiling Rexx-like code for a Java Virtual Machine. In capabilities and programming level, Rexx can be compared most closely to
bash plus the GNU text utilities (throwing in
sed for good measure); or maybe to
awk or Perl. Certainly Rexx has more of a quick-and-dirty feel to it than do, e.g., Python, Ruby, or Java. The verbosity -- or rather, conciseness -- of Rexx is similar to that of Perl, Python, Ruby or TCL. And Rexx is certainly Turing-complete, enables modules and structured programming, and has libraries for tasks such as GUI interfaces, network programming, and database access. But its most natural target is in automation of system scripting and text processing tasks. As with shell scripting, Rexx allows very natural and transparent control of application; but compared to
ksh, etc.), Rexx contains a much richer collection of built-in control structures and (text processing) functions.
Stylistically, the IBM/mainframe roots of Rexx show in its case-insensitive commands; and to a lesser degree in the relative sparsity of punctuation it uses (preferring keywords to symbols). I tend to find that these qualities aid readability; but this is mostly a matter of individual taste.
A start at streams and stacks
As a simple conceit, let me present a number of versions of a very simple utility that lists files and numbers them. One feature that Rexx has in common with shell scripting is that it has a relatively impoverished collection of functions for working with the underlying operating system -- mostly limited to the the ability to open, read, and modify files. For most anything else, you rely on external utilities to perform the job at hand. The utility
numbered-1.rexx simply processes STDIN:
Listing 1. numbered-1.rexx
The ubiquitous instruction
PARSE can read from various sources. In this case, it puts the next line of STDIN into the variable
line. We also check if a line is blank, and skip showing and numbering it if so. For example, combined with
ls we can get:
Listing 2. Piping command to numbered-1
You can just as easily pipe any other command in.
A concept at the core of Rexx is juggling multiple stacks or streams. In
bash-like fashion, anything in Rexx that is not recognized as an internal instruction or function is assumed to be an external utility. There is no special function or syntax for calling an external command. Taking advantage of the Regina utility
rxqueue, which puts output onto the Rexx stack, we can write a "numbered ls" utility as:
Listing 3. ls-1.rexx
Some instructions in Rexx may explicitly specify a stack to operate on; but other instructions operate within an environment which you configure with the
ADDRESS instruction. STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR, files, and in-memory data stacks are all handled in a uniform and elegant fashion. Above we used the external
rxqueue utility, but we can similarly redirect output of utilities right within Rexx. For example:
Listing 4. ls-2.rexx
It might appear that the
ADDRESS command is grabbing the output of just the
ls utility; but it is actually changing the general execution environment for later external calls. These examples were run on a case-retentive/case-insensitive filesystem; under many systems, you will have to quote "ls" to maintain its case. This behaves identically:
Listing 5. ls-5.rexx
Any subsequent external commands, if they are run in the default
SYSTEM environment, will direct their output to the default FIFO.(first-in-first-out). You could also output to a LIFO instead (either named or default) -- the difference being that a FIFO adds to the "bottom" of the stack, and a LIFO to the "top." The instructions
QUEUE correspond to LIFO and FIFO operations on the stack. The instruction
PARSE PULL take a string off the top of the stack.
Another useful stack to look at is that of the command-line arguments to a Rexx script. For example, we might want to execute an arbitrary command in our numbering utility, not always
Listing 6. numbered-1.rexx
The script in action:
Listing 7. Passing command to numbered-1
PARSE PULL can be used to pull lines from user input. Following the example of the execution of the argument
cmd, you could write a shell or interactive environment in Rexx (perhaps running either external utilities or built-in commands, much like
Stem variables and associative arrays
In Rexx -- somewhat like in TCL -- to a large extent everything is a string. Having stacks and streams composed of lines gives you a simple list or array of strings. But mostly, strings simply act like other datatypes as needed. For example, a string that contains a suitable representation of a number (digits, decimal, an exponent "e", etc.) can be used in arithmetic operations. For processing reports, log files, and the like, this is exactly the behavior you want.
Rexx, however, does have one additional standard datatype: associative arrays. In Rexx they go under the name "stem variables," but the concept is very similar that of dictionaries in many other languages. The syntax for stem variables will be oddly familiar to users of OOP languages like Java, Python, or Ruby: a dot separates "objects" and their "attributes." This is not really object-orientation, but the syntax does (accidentally) highlight the degree to which an object resembles a particularly robust dictionary; there are OOP extensions to Rexx out there, but this article will not address them.
Not every string is valid Rexx symbol -- which restricts the keys in the dictionary -- but Rexx is pretty liberal about its symbol names, compared to most languages. E.g.
Listing 8. Using stem variables in Rexx
A couple features stand out in this example. We set a value for both a stem and its compound (e.g.
foo.fop.fip). Also notice that the undefined symbol
foo.fop.nope simply stands for its own spelling, absent an assignment to the contrary. This lets us skip quotes in most situations. Case of names is normalized to upper case in most Rexx contexts.
One useful trick is to set a value for the dotted stem, which then acts as a default value for compound names based on the stem. For the next example, we also make use of the capability to
ADDRESS the sequential numbered symbols of a compound name as an output environment:
Listing 9. ls-3.rexx
As soon as the loop gets to some compound variable name that was not populated by the output of the external
ls utility, we detect the default value of "UNDEF" and leave the loop (if the output might contain that string, a false collision could occur, however).
Rexx also has an error-handling system that lets you
SIGNAL conditions and handle them appropriately. Instead of checking for a default compound value, you can also catch the access to an undefined variable. E.g.:
Listing 10. ls-6.rexx
Just to round our
ls variants out, here is one more that uses a file for its I/O:
Listing 11. ls-4.rexx
Since the output stream is a regular file, it is probably good to remove it at the end.
Text processing functions
The brief examples above will give readers a bit of the feel of Rexx as a programming language. You can also, of course, define your own procedures and functions -- in separate module files, if you wish -- and call them either with the
CALL instruction or using parenthesized arguments, as with some of the examples in this article that use standard functions.
Perhaps the greatest strength in Rexx as a text processing language is its useful collection of built-in string manipulation functions. Somewhere over half of all the standard Rexx functions are for working with strings, with a chunk of others thrown in for quite readable manipulation of bit vectors. Moreover, even bit vectors are often manipulated (or read in) as strings of ones and zeros:
Listing 12. bits.rexx
A nice feature of Rexx's text handling functions is the naturalness of treating lines as being composed of whitespace-separated words. For textual reports and log files, easily ignoring extraneous whitespace is quite useful -- 'awk' does something similar, but Python's
string.split() quickly gets more "busy" in describing the same operations. In fact, "arrays" in Rexx just amount to whitespace-separated strings. The
PULL instruction will pull out variables from a general template pattern for a line, which at a minimal case allows word division:
Listing 13. pushpull.rexx
Further dividing strings that may or may not have been pulled with a template is elegant. Functions like
subword() let you refer to the "words" in a string as if they made up a list, e.g.:
Listing 14. Working with words in a string
Of course, you also get a rich collection of character-oriented functions as well. It is equally easy to work with character positions using functions like
substr() (and others).
Another batch of the built-in functions let you work with dates and numbers in a flexible, report-oriented, way. That is, numbers can be read and written in a variety of formats, with arbitrary (configurable) precision. Dates, similarly, can be read, written and converted among many formats with standard function calls (e.g. day-of-week, days-in-century, European versus US dates, etc.). The flexibility with dates and numbers is probably less often necessary in writing system scripts and processing log files than it is in working with semi-structured output reports from database applications. But when you need it, it is much more robust to have well-tested built-in functions than to write your own ad-hoc converters and formatters.
Coming more out of an IBM "big-iron" environment than from Unix systems, Rexx is little-known to many Linux programmers and systems administrators. But there remains an important Linux niche where Rexx is a better scripting solution than either the "too-light"
ksh shells, or the "too-heavy" interpreted programming languages like Python, Perl, Ruby, TCL, or maybe Scheme. For quick and easily readable scripts that perform text manipulation on the inputs and outputs of external processes, Rexx is hard to beat, and not hard to learn or install.
- Regina is the LGPL Rexx implementation used in writing and testing the examples in this article, and for most people will be the best choice for an environment to install. Regina is available on an extremely wide range of platforms, and is fully ANSI compliant (with a few extensions added). The site also contains links to a number of useful Rexx libraries for working with application areas like Tk, Curses, Sockets, SQL, and others.
- NetRexx is an IBM project for compiling Rexx code for a Java Virtual Machine. While it is certainly possible to use NetRexx for client/workstation scripting needs, the main focus of NetRexx is to allow more rapid development of server-side Java applications (JSP and related technologies).
- The Rexx Language Association is a a general advocacy group for the Rexx programming language. Their site contains miscellaneous links to useful libraries and other resources, including details on the Rexx ANSI Standard.
- IBM Hursley also maintains a nice list of Rexx resources. You can find tutorials, references, and links to a variety of modern libraries. The Hursley site also has a page on the history of Rexx.
- The IBM REXX Family runs on host systems, such as VM/ESA, VSE/ESA, and MVS/ESA, and workstation environments, such as AIX, OS/2, Linux, and Windows.
- There is even a Mod_Rexx package for the Apache Web server.
- Find more resources for Linux developers in the developerWorks Linux zone.